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2021 年全国硕士研究生招生考试英语(二) Section I Use of English Directions: Read the following tex...

2021 年全国硕士研究生招生考试英语(二)
Section I  Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
    It's not difficult to set targets for staff.It is much harder,_1_ to understand their negative consequences. Most work-related behaviors have multiple components. 2_ one and the other become distorted.
    Travel on a London bus and you'll_3_ see how this works with drivers. Watch people get on and show their tickets.Are they are carefully inspected? Never.Do people get on without paying? Of course! Are there inspectors to 4 that 
people have paid? Possibly,but very few. And people who run for the bus? They are 5 . How about jumping lights? Buses do so almost as frequently as cyclists.
    Why Because the target is _6_.People complained that buses were late and infrequent,_7_,the number of buses and bus lanes were increased,and drivers were_8_ or punished according to the time they took.And drivers hit their targets. 
But they _9_ cyclists.If the target was changed to_10_,you would have more inspectors and more sensitive pricing. If the criterion changed to safety, you would get more __11_ drivers who obeyed traffic laws. But both these criteria would 
be at the expense of time.
    There is another_12_:people become immensely inventive in hitting targets. Have you 13_ that you can leave on a fight an hour late but still arrive on time? Tailwind? Of course not!Airlines have simply changed the time a _14_ is 
meant to take.A one-hour flight is now billed as a two-hour flight .
    The _15_ of the story is simple,Most jobs are multidimensional with multiple criteria. Choose one criterion and you may well_16_others.Everything can be done faster and made cheaper, but there is a_17_ .Setting targets can and does 
have unforeseen consequences
    This is not an argument against target-setting.But it is an argument for exploring consequences first.All good targets should have multiple criteria_18_ critical factors such as time,money,quality and customer feedback.The trick is 
not to_19_just one or even two dimensions of the objective, but also to understand bow to help people better_20_ the objective .
1. A.therefore B.however C.again D.moreover
2. A.Emphasize B.Identify C.Assess D.Explain
3. A.nearly B.curiously C.eagerly D.quickly
4. A.claim B.prove C.check D.recall
5. A.threatened B.ignored C.mocked D.blamed
6. A.punctuality B.hospitality C.competition D.innovation
7. A.Yet B.So C.Besides D.Still
8. A.hired B.trained C.rewarded D.grouped
9. A.only B.rather C.once D.also
10. A.comfort B.revenue C.efficiency
11. A.friendly B.quiet C.cautious D.diligent
12. A.purpose B.problem C.prejudice D.policy
13. A.reported B.revealed C.admitted D.noticed
14. A.break B.trip C.departure D.transfer
15. A.moral B.background D.form
16. A.interpret B.criticize C.sacrifice D.tolerate
17. A.task B.secret C.product D.cost
18. A.leading to B.calling for C.relating to D.accounting for
19. A.specify B.predict C.restore D.create
20.A.modify B. review C. present D.achieve
答案:1-5BADCB    6-10ABCDB    11-15CBDBB    16-20CDCAD
Section II  Reading Comprehension
Part A
Read the following four texts.Answer the questions after each text by choosing A,B,Cor D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. 40 points)
Text 1
    "Reskilling" is something that sounds like a buzzword but is actually a requirement if we plan to have a future in which a lot of would-be workers do not get left behind.We know we are moving into a period where the jobs in demand 
will change rapidly,as will the requirements of the jobs that remain.Research by the World Economic Forum finds that on average 42 per cent of the"core skills" within job roles will change by 2022.That is a very short timeline.
    The question of who should pay for reskilling is a thorny one. For individual companies, the temptation is always to let go of workers whose skills are no longer in demand and replace them with those whose skills are.That does not 
always happen.AT&T is often given as the gold standard of a company that decided to do a massive reskilling program rather than go with a fire-and-hire strategy. Other companies had also pledged to create their own plans. When the skills 
mismatch is in the broader economy, though,the focus usually turns to government to handle.Efforts in Canada and elsewhere have been arguably languid at best,and have given us a situation where we frequently hear of employers begging for 
workers,even at times and in regions where unemployment is high.
    With the pandemic,unemployment is very high indeed. In February,at 3.5 percent and 5.5 percent respectively,unemployment rates in Canada and United States were at generational lows and worker shortages were everywhere.As of May, 
those rates had spiked up to 13.3 per cent and 13.7 per cent,and although many worker shortages had disappeared, not all had done so.In the medical field, to take an obvious example,the pandemic meant that there were still clear 
shortages of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel.
    Of course,it is not like you can take and unemployed waiter and train him to be a doctor in a few weeks.But even if you cannot close that gap,may be you can close others,and doing so would be to the benefit of all concerned.That 
seems to be the case in Sweden: When forced to furlough 90 per cent of their cabin staff, Scandinavian Airlines decided to start up a short retraining program that reskilled the laid-off workers to support hospital staff.The effort was a 
collective one and involved other companies as well as a Swedish university.
21.Research by the World Economic Forum Suggests_____.
[A] an urgent demand for new job skills
[B] an increase in full-time employment
[C] a steady growth of job opportunities
[D]a controversy about the"core skills"
答案∶ A
22. AT&T is cited to show_____.
[A] The characteristics of reskilling in programs
[B] The importance of staff appraisal standards
[C] An immediate need for government support
[D]An alternative to the five-and-hire standards
23.Efforts to resolve the skills mismatch in Canada_____.
[A] have appeared to be insufficient
[B] have driven labour costs up
[C] have proved ti be inconsistent
[D] have met with fierce opposition
24. We can learn from Paragraph 3 that there was_____.
[A] a sign of economic recovery
[B] a call for policy adjustment
[C] a change in hiring practices
[D] a lack of medical workers
25.Scandinavian Airlines decided to_____.
[A] create job vacancies for the unemployed
[B] retrain their cabin staff for better services
[C] prepare their laid-off workers for other jobs
[D] finance their staffs' college education
Text 2
With the global population predicted to hit close to 10 billion by 2050,and forecasts that agricultural production in some regions will need to nearly double to keep pace,food security is increasingly making headlines.In the UK,it has 
become a big talking point recently too,for a rather particular reason: Brexit.
    Brexit is seen by some as an opportunity to reverse are recent trend towards the UK importing food. The country produces only about 60 per cent of the food it eats, down from almost three-quarters in the late 1980s. A move back to 
self-sufficiency, the argument goes, would boost the farming industry, political sovereignty and even the nation's health. Sounds great - but how feasible is this vision ?
    According to a report on UK food production from the University of Leeds,85 percent of the country's total land area is associated with meat and dairy production. That supplies 80 percent of what is consumed,so even covering the 
whole country in livestock farms wouldnt allow us to cover all our meat and dairy needs.
    There are many caveats to those figures, but they are still grave. To become much more self-sufficient, the UK would need to drastically reduce its  consumption of animal foods,and probably also farm more intensively—meaning fewer 
green fields,and more factory-style production.
    But switching to a mainly plant-based diet wouldn't help. There is a good reason why the UK is dominated by animal husbandry: most of its terrain doesn't have the right soil or climate to grow crops on a commercial basis. Just 25 
percent of the country's land is suitable for crop-growing,most of which is already occupied by arable fields.Even if we converted all the suitable land to fields of fruit and veg—which would involve taking out all he nature reserves 
and removing thousands of people from their homes—we would achieve only a 30 percent boost in crop production .
    Just 23 percent of the fruit and vegetables consumed in the UK are currently home-grown,so even with the most extreme measures we could meet only 30 per cent of our fresh produce needs. That is before we look for the space to grow 
the grains,sugars, seeds and oils that provide us with the vast bulk of our current calorie intake.
26.Some people argue that food self-sufficiency in UK would_____.
[A] be hindered by its population growth
[B] become a priority of government
[C] pose a challenge to its farming industry
[D] contribute to the nation's well-being
27.The report by the university of leads shows that in the UK_____.
[A] farmland has been inefficiently utilized
[B] factory-style production needs reforming
[C] most land is used for meat and dairy production
[D] more green fields will be converted for farming
28.Grop-growing in the UK restricted due to_____.
[A] its farming technology
[B]its dietary tradition
[C] its natural conditions
[D] its commercial interests
29.It can be learned from the last paragraph that British people?
[A] rely largely on imports for fresh produce
[B] enjoy a steady rise infrunt consumption
[C] are seeking effective ways to cut calorie intake
[D] are trying to grow new varieties of gains
30.The author's attitude to food self-efficiency in the UK is_____.
[A] defensive
[B] tolerant
[C] optimistic
[D] doubtful
Text 3
    When Microsoft bought task management app Wunderlist and mobile calendar Sunrise in 2015,it picked two newcomers that were attracting considerable buzz in Silicon Valley. Microsoft's own Office dominates the market 
for"productivity"software,but the star-ups represented a new wave of technology designed from the ground up for the smartphone world.
    Both apps,however,were later scrapped after Microsoft said it had used their best features in its own products.Their teams of engines stayed on, making them two of the many"acqui-hires"that the biggest companies have used to feed 
their great hunger for tech talent
    To Microsoft's critics, the fates of Wunderlist and Sunrise are examples of a remorseless drive by Big Tech to chew up any innovative companies that lie in their path."They bought the seedlings and closed them down,"complained Paul 
Amold a partner at San Francisco-based Switch Ventures, putting an end to businesses that might one day tum into competitors. Microsoft declined to comment.
    Like other start-up investors,Mr.Arnold's own business often depends on selling start-ups to larger tech companies,though he admits to mixed feelings about the result:"I think these things are good for me,if I put my selfish hat 
on.But are they good for the American economy? I don't know."
    The US Federal Trade Commission says it wants to find the answer to that question.This week,it asked the five most valuable US tech companies for information about their many small acquisitions over the past decade.Although only are 
search project at this stage,the request has raised the prospect of regulators wading into early-stage tech markets that until now have been beyond their reach.
    Given their combined market value of more than $5.5trillion, rifling through such small deals-many of them much less prominent than Wunderlist and Sunrise-might seem beside the point. Between them, the five biggest tech companies 
have spent an average of only S 3.4 billion a year on sub-SI billion acquisitions over the past five years—a drop in the ocean compared with their massive financial reserves, and the more than S 130 billion of venture capital that was 
invested in the US last year.
    However, critics say the big companies use such deals to buy their most threatening potential competitors before their businesses have a chance to gain momentum,in some cases as part of a"buy and kill "tactic to simply close them 
31.What is true about Wunderlist and Sunrise after their acquisitions ?
[A] Their market values declined.
[B] Their engineers were retained.
[C] Their tech features improved.
[D] Their products were re-priced.
答案 ∶B
32.Microsofts critics believe that the big tech companies tend to_____.
[A]exaggerate their product quality
[B]treat new tech talent unfairly
[C] eliminate their potential competitions
[D] ignore public opinions
33.Paul Arnold is concerned that small acquisitions might
[A] weaken big tech companies
[B] worse market competition
[C]discourage start up investors
[D] harm the national economy
34.The US Federal Trade Commission intends to_____.
[A] supervise start-ups' operations
[B] encourage research collaboration
[C] limit Big Tech's expansion
[D] examine small acquisitions.
35.For the five biggest tech companies, their small acquisitions have_____.
[A] raised few management challenges
[B] brought little financial pressure
[C] Set an example for future deals
[D] generated considerable profits
答案∶ B
Text 4
    We're fairly good at judging people based on first impressions, thin slices of experience ranging from a glimpse of a photo to a five-minute interaction,and deliberation can be not only extraneous but intrusive. In one study of the 
ability she dubbed"thin slicing,, the late psychologist Nalini Ambady asked participants to watch silent 10-second video clips of professors and to rate the instructor's overall effectiveness.Their ratings correlated strongly with 
students' end-of-semester ratings.Another set of participants had to count backward from 1,000 by nines as they watched the clips, occupying their conscious working memory. Their ratings were just as accurate,demonstrating the intuitive 
nature of the social processing.
    Critically, another group was asked to spend a minute writing down reasons for their judgment, before giving the rating. Accuracy dropped dramatically. Ambady suspected that deliberation focused them on vivid but misleading cues, 
such as certain gestures or utterances, rather than letting the complex interplay of subtle signals form a holistic impression.She found similar interference when participants watched 15-second clips of pairs of people and judged whether 
they were strangers, friends, or dating partners.
    Other research shows we're better at detecting deception and sexual orientation from thin slices when we rely on intuition instead of reflection."It's as if you're driving a stick shift," says Judith Hall, a psychologist at 
Northeaster University,"and if you start thinking about it too much,you can't remember what you're doing.But if you go on automatic pilot,you're fine. Much of our social life is like that."
    Thinking too much can also harm our ability to form preferences. College students' ratings of strawberry jams and college courses aligned better with experts' opinions when the students weren't asked to analyze their rationale.And 
people made car-buying decisions that were both objectively better and more personally satisfying when asked to focus on their feelings rather than on details, but only if the decision was complex—when they had a lot of information to 
    Intuition's special powers are unleashed only in certain circumstances. In one study, participants completed a battery of eight tasks, including four that tapped reflective thinking(discerning rules, comprehending vocabulary)and four 
that tapped intuition and creativity(generating new products or figures of speech).Then they rated the degree to which they had used intuition(gut feelings,""hunches,""my heart"). Use of their gut hurt their performance on the first four 
tasks,as expected,and helped them on the rest. Sometimes the heart is smarter than the head.
36.Nalini Ambaby's study deals with_____.
[A] instructor student interaction
[B] the power of people memory
[C] the reliability of first impression
[D] People's ability to influence others.
37.In Ambaby's study rating accuracy dropped when participants_____.
[A] gave the rating in limited time
[B] focused on specific detail
[C] watched shorter video clips
[D] discussed with on another
38.Judith Hall mentions driving to mention that_____.
[A] memory can be selective
[B] reflection can be distracting
[C] social skills must be cultivate
[D] deception is difficult to detect
39.When you are making complex decisions it is advisable to_____.
[A] follow your feelings
[B] list your preference
[C] Seek expert advice
[D] collect enough data
40.what can we ear from the last paragraph
[A] Intuition may affect reflective tasks
[B] Generating new products takes time
[C] Vocabulary comprehension needs creativity
[D] Objective thinking may boost inventiveness
Part B
Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraph(41-45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use.Mark your answers on the ANSWER 
[A] Stay calm
[B] Stay humble
[C] Don't make judgments
[D] Be realistic about the risks
[E] Decide whether to wait
[F] Ask permission to disagree
[G] Identify a shared goal
How to Disagree with Someone More Powerful than You
    Your boss proposes a new initiative you think won't work.Your senior colleague outlines a project timeline you think is unrealistic.What do you say when you disagree with someone who has more power than you do? How do you decide 
whether it's worth speaking up? And if you do, what exactly should you say? Here's how to disagree with someone more powerful than you.
41. ________________
    You may decide it's best to hold of on voicing your opinion.Maybe you haven't finished thinking the problem through, the whole discussion was a surprise to you,or you want to get a clearer sense of what the group thinks.If you think 
other people are going to disagree too,you might want to gather your army first. People can contribute experience or information to your thinking— all the things that would make the disagreement stronger or more valid. It's also a good 
idea to delay the conversation if you're in a meeting or other public space.Discussing the issue in private will make the powerful person feel less threatened.
    Before you share your thoughts,think about what the powerful person cares about — it may be"the credibility"of their team or getting a project done on time.You're more likely to be heard if you can connect your disagreement to a 
higher purpose. When you do speak up, don't assume the link will be clear. You'll want to state it overtly, contextualizing your statements so that you're seen not as a disagreeable underling but as a colleague who's trying to advance a 
shared goal.The discussion will then become more like a chess game than a boxing match.
    This step may sound overly deferential, but, it's a smart way to give the powerful person psychological safety and control You can say something like,"I know we seem to be moving toward a fist-quarter commitment here.I have reasons 
to think that won't work.I'd like to lay out my reasoning. Would that be OK?"This gives the person a choice,allowing them to verbally opt in.And,assuming they say yes it ill make you feel more confident about voicing your disagreement.
    You might feel your heart racing or your face turning red,but do whatever you can to remain neutral in both your words and actions. When your body language communicates reluctance oranxiety,it undercuts the message.It sends a mixed 
message,and your counterpart gets to choose what to read. Deep breaths can help,as can speaking more slowly and deliberately. When we feel panicky we tend to talk louder and faster. Simply slowing the pace and talking in an even tone 
helps calm the other person down and does the same for you. It also makes you seem confident, even if you aren't.
    Emphasize that you're offering your opinion, not gospel truth.It may be a well-informed well-researched opinion,but it's still an opinion,my talk tentatively and slightly understate your confidence.Instead of saying something 
like,"If we set an end-of-quarter deadline, we'll never make it,"say,"This is just my opinion,but I don't see how we will make that deadline."Having asserted your position ((as a position,not as a fact), demonstrate equal curiosity about 
other views.Remind the person that this is your point of view,and then invite critique.Be genuinely open to hearing other opinions.
42. E. Decide whether to wait
43. G. Identify a shared goal
44. F. Ask permission to disagree
45. A. Stay calm
45. B. Stay humble
Section III  Translation
46. Directions:
Translate the following text into Chinese.Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points)
    We tend to think that friends and family members are our biggest sources of connection, laughter and warmth. While that may well be true,researchers have also recently found that interacting with strangers actually brings a boost in 
mood and felings of belonging that we didn't expect.
    In one series of studies, researchers instructed Chicago-area commuters using public transportation to strike up a conversation with some one near them. On average, participants who followed the instruction felt better than those who 
had been told to stand or sit in silence. The researchers also argued that when we shy away from casual interaction with strangers, it is often due to a misplaced anxiety that they might not want to talk to us. Much of the time, 
however,this belief is false.As it turns out, many people are actually perfectly willing to talk— and may even be flattered to receive your attention.
Section IV  Writing
Part A 
suppose you are organizing an online meting. Write an email to Jack,an international student, to
1) invite him to participate, and
2) tell him the details
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not use your own name.Use "Li Ming"instead.
Do not write your address.(10 points)
Dear Jack,
How are you doing recently? I hope everything goes well.I am writing to invite you take part in an online meeting. Here I have some details.
The meeting is scheduled to start at5:00 next Friday afternoon and it will last for about one hour.During the meeting,we will discuss the proposal of organizing the winter camp this year. And some students from other countries will join 
in it.You,as an international students,should know them better than us.
That's all.And I really hope you could share your ideas.If you have any question,please contact me.
48. Directions:
Write an essay based on the following chart.In your writing,,you should
1) interpret the chart, and
2)give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points)
The bar chart above presents us clearly the result of a survey about how people in a certain city do physical exercise.As we can see,doing sport alone  takes up 54.3%,ranking on the top. What comes next is to exercise with friends.The 
proportions of staying with family and joining in a certain association for exercise are 23.9% and 15.8% respectively.
Through the analysis of the figures, we can get the conclusion that people are paying more and more attention to doing sports trough various aces.No matter what way, hey would catch any chance to improve their health condition. Behind 
this phenomenon, there exist several
factors.Firstly, with the improvement of living standard, people begin to emphasize the quality of life.Another factor is that people can do sport with  more time thanks to the development of our economy. Certainly, doing exercise it the 
most effective way to relax ourselves from my perspective.
Based on all above,it concluded that we should do more sports when permitted.And I believe there will more ways to be created for people to do physical exercise.



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